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MAGIC results

Deep observations of the globular cluster M15 with the MAGIC telescopes
A population of globular clusters (GCs) has been recently established by the Fermi-LAT telescope as a new class of GeV gamma-ray sources. Leptons accelerated to TeV energies, in the inner magnetospheres of MSPs or in their wind regions, should produce gamma-rays through the inverse Compton scattering in the dense radiation field from the huge population of stars. We have conducted deep observations of the globular cluster M15 with the MAGIC telescopes and used 165 hrs in order to search for gamma-ray emission. A strong upper limit on the TeV gamma-ray flux 3.2 times 10^-13 cm-2 s^-1 above 300 GeV (<0.26% of the Crab nebula flux) has been obtained. We interpret this limit as a constraint on the efficiency of the acceleration of leptons in the magnetospheres of the MSPs. We constrain the injection rate of relativistic leptons, eta_e, from the MSPs magnetospheres and their surrounding. We conclude that eta_e must be lower than expected from the modelling of high energy processes in MSP inner magnetospheres. For leptons accelerated with the power law spectrum in the MSP wind regions, eta_e is constrained to be much lower than derived for the wind regions around classical pulsars. These constraints are valid for the expected range of magnetic field strengths within the GC and for the range of likely energies of leptons injected from the inner magnetospheres, provided that the leptons are not removed from the globular cluster very efficiently due to advection process. We discuss consequences of these constraints for the models of radiation processes around millisecond pulsars.

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A Fast Very High Energy γ-ray Flare from BL Lacertae during a Period of Multiwavelength activity in June 2015
The mechanisms producing fast variability of the $\gamma$-ray emission in active galactic nuclei are under debate. The MAGIC telescopes detected a fast very high energy (VHE, E$>100$ GeV) $\gamma$-ray flare from BL Lacertae on 2015 June 15. The flare had a maximum flux of $(1.5\pm 0.3)\times 10^{-10}$ photons cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and halving time of $26\pm8$ minutes. The MAGIC observations were triggered by a high state in the optical and high energy (HE, E$>100$ MeV) $\gamma$-ray bands. In this paper we present the MAGIC VHE $\gamma$-ray data together with multiwavelength data from radio, optical, X-rays, and HE $\gamma$ rays from 2015 May 1 to July 31. Well-sampled multiwavelength data allow us to study the variability in detail and compare it to the other epochs when fast VHE $\gamma$-ray flares have been detected from this source. Interestingly, we find that the behaviour in radio, optical, X-rays and HE $\gamma$-rays is very similar to two other observed VHE $\gamma$-ray flares. In particular, also during this flare there was an indication of rotation of the optical polarization angle and of activity at the 43\,GHz core. These repeating patterns indicate a connection between the three events. We also test modelling of the spectral energy distribution, based on constraints from the light curves and VLBA observations, with two different geometrical setups of two-zone inverse Compton models. In addition we model the $\gamma$-ray data with the star-jet interaction model. We find that all of the tested emission models are compatible with the fast VHE $\gamma$-ray flare, but all have some tension with the multiwavelength observations.

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MAGIC and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray results on unassociated HAWC sources
The HAWC Collaboration released the 2HWC catalog of TeV sources, in which 19 show no association with any known high-energy (HE; E > 10 GeV) or very-high-energy (VHE; E > 300 GeV) sources. This catalog motivated follow-up studies by both the MAGIC and Fermi-LAT observatories with the aim of investigating gamma-ray emission over a broad energy band. In this paper, we report the results from the first joint work between HAWC, MAGIC and Fermi-LAT on three unassociated HAWC sources: 2HWC J2006+341, 2HWC J1907+084* and 2HWC J1852+013*. Although no significant detection was found in the HE and VHE regimes, this investigation shows that a minimum 1 degree extension (at 95% confidence level) and harder spectrum in the GeV than the one extrapolated from HAWC results are required in the case of 2HWC J1852+013*, while a simply minimum extension of 0.16 degrees (at 95% confidence level) can already explain the scenario proposed by HAWC for the remaining sources. Moreover, the hypothesis that these sources are pulsar wind nebulae is also investigated in detail.

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Discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the neighbourhood of the supernova remnant G24.7+0.6 by MAGIC
SNR G24.7+0.6 is a 9.5 kyrs radio and γ-ray supernova remnant evolving in a dense medium. In the GeV regime, SNR G24.7+0.6 (3FHL J1834.1-0706e/FGES J1834.1-0706) shows a hard spectral index (Γ˜2) up to 200 GeV, which makes it a good candidate to be observed with Cherenkov telescopes such as MAGIC. We observed the field of view of SNR G24.7+0.6 with the MAGIC telescopes for a total of 31 hours. We detect very high energy γ-ray emission from an extended source located 0.34° away from the center of the radio SNR. The new source, named MAGIC J1835-069 is detected up to 5 TeV, and its spectrum is well-represented by a power-law function with spectral index of 2.74 ± 0.08. The complexity of the region makes the identification of the origin of the very-high energy emission difficult, however the spectral agreement with the LAT source and overlapping position at less than 1.5σ point to a common origin. We analysed 8 years of Fermi-LAT data to extend the spectrum of the source down to 60 MeV. Fermi-LAT and MAGIC spectra overlap within errors and the global broad band spectrum is described by a power-law with exponential cutoff at 1.9 ± 0.5 TeV. The detected γ-ray emission can be interpreted as the results of proton-proton interaction between the supernova and the CO-rich surrounding.

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We report on observations of the pulsar / Be star binary system PSR J2032+4127 / MT91 213 in the energy range between 100 GeV and 20 TeV with the VERITAS and MAGIC imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope arrays. The binary orbit has a period of approximately 50 years, with the most recent periastron occurring on 2017 November 13. Our observations span from 18 months prior to periastron to one month after. A new, point-like, gamma-ray source is detected, coincident with the location of PSR J2032+4127 / MT91 213. The gamma-ray light curve and spectrum are well-characterized over the periastron passage. The flux is variable over at least an order of magnitude, peaking at periastron, thus providing a firm association of the TeV source with the pulsar / Be star system. Observations prior to periastron show a cutoff in the spectrum at an energy around 0 . 5 TeV. This result adds a new member to the small population of known TeV binaries, and it identifies only the second source of this class in which the nature and properties of the compact object are firmly established. We compare the gamma-ray results with the light curve measured with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on board the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory and with the predictions of recent theoretical models of the system. We conclude that significant revision of the models is required to explain the details of the emission we have observed, and we discuss the relationship between the binary system and the overlapping steady extended source, TeV J2032+4130.

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Constraining very-high-energy and optical emission from FRB 121102 with the MAGIC telescopes
Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are bright flashes observed typically at GHz frequencies with millisecond duration, whose origin is likely extragalactic. Their nature remains mysterious, motivating searches for counterparts at other wavelengths. FRB 121102 is so far the only source known to repeatedly emit FRBs and is associated with a host galaxy at redshift z≃0.193. We conducted simultaneous observations of FRB 121102 with the Arecibo and MAGIC telescopes during several epochs in 2016--2017. This allowed searches for millisecond-timescale burst emission in very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays as well as the optical band. While a total of five FRBs were detected during these observations, no VHE emission was detected, neither of a persistent nature nor burst-like associated with the FRBs. The average integral flux upper limits above 100 GeV at 95% confidence level are 6.6×10−12 photons cm−2 s−1 (corresponding to luminosity LVHE≲1045 erg s−1) over the entire observation period, and 1.2×10−7 photons cm−2 s−1 (LVHE≲1049 erg s−1) over the total duration of the five FRBs. We constrain the optical U-band flux to be below 8.6 mJy at 5-σ level for 1-ms intervals around the FRB arrival times. A bright burst with U-band flux 29 mJy and duration ∼12 ms was detected 4.3 s before the arrival of one FRB. However, the probability of spuriously detecting such a signal within the sampled time space is 1.5% (2.2 σ, post-trial), i.e. consistent with the expected background. We discuss the implications of the obtained upper limits for constraining FRB models.

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Detection of persistent VHE gamma-ray emission from PKS 1510-089 by the MAGIC telescopes during low states between 2012 and 2017
Context. PKS 1510-089 is a flat spectrum radio quasar strongly variable in the optical and GeV range. So far, very-high-energy (VHE) emission has been observed from this source during either long high states of optical and GeV activity or during short flares. Aims. We search for low-state VHE gamma-ray emission from PKS 1510-089. We aim to characterize and model the source in a broad-band context, which would provide a baseline over which high states and flares could be better understood. Methods. PKS 1510-089 has been monitored by the MAGIC telescopes since 2012. We use daily binned Fermi-LAT flux measurements of PKS 1510-089 to characterize the GeV emission and select the observation periods of MAGIC during low state of activity. For the selected times we compute the average radio, IR, optical, UV, X-ray and gamma-ray emission to construct a low-state spectral energy distribution of the source. The broadband emission is modelled within an External Compton scenario with a stationary emission region through which plasma and magnetic field are flowing. Results. The MAGIC telescopes collected 75 hrs of data during times when the Fermi-LAT flux measured above 1 GeV was below 3x10 -8 cm -2 s -1 , which is the threshold adopted for the definition of a low gamma-ray activity state. The data show a strongly significant (9.5{\sigma}) VHE gamma-ray emission at the level of (4.27 +- 0.61 stat ) x 10 -12 cm -2 s -1 above 150 GeV, a factor 80 smaller than the highest flare observed so far from this object. Despite the lower flux, the spectral shape is consistent with earlier detections in the VHE band. The broad-band emission is compatible with the External Compton scenario assuming a large emission region located beyond the broad line region.

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The extreme HBL behaviour of Markarian 501 during 2012
Aims: We aim to characterize the multiwavelength emission from Markarian 501 (Mrk 501), quantify the energy-dependent variability, study the potential multiband correlations and describe the temporal evolution of the broadband emission within leptonic theoretical scenarios. Methods: A multiwavelength campaign was organized to take place between March and July of 2012. Excellent temporal coverage was obtained with more than 25 instruments, including the MAGIC, FACT and VERITAS Cherenkov telescopes, the instruments on board the Swift and Fermi spacecraft, and the telescopes operated by the GASP-WEBT collaboration. Results: Mrk 501 showed a very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray flux above 0.2 TeV of ∼0.5 times the Crab Nebula flux (CU) for most of the campaign. The highest activity occurred on 2012 June 9, when the VHE flux was ∼3 CU, and the peak of the high-energy spectral component was found to be at ∼2 TeV. Both the X-ray and VHE gamma-ray spectral slopes were measured to be extremely hard, with spectral indices < 2 during most of the observing campaign, regardless of the X-ray and VHE flux. This study reports the hardest Mrk 501 VHE spectra mea sured to date. The fractional variability was found to increase with energy, with the highest variability occurring at VHE. Using the complete data set, we found correlation between the X-ray and VHE bands; however, if the June 9 flare is excluded, the correlation disappears (significance <3σ) despite the existence of substantial variability in the X-ray and VHE bands throughout the campaign. Conclusions: The unprecedentedly hard X-ray and VHE spectra measured imply that their low- and high-energy components peaked above 5 keV and 0.5 TeV, respectively, during a large fraction of the observing campaign, and hence that Mrk 501 behaved like an extreme high-frequency-peaked blazar (EHBL) throughout the 2012 observing season. This suggests that being an EHBL may not be a permanent characteristic of a blazar, but rather a state which may change over time. The data set acquired shows that the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of Mrk 501, and its transient evolution, is very complex, requiring, within the framework of synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models, various emission regions for a satisfactory description. Nevertheless the one-zone SSC scenario can successfully describe the segments of the SED where most energy is emitted, with a significant correlation between the electron energy density and the VHE gamma-ray activity, suggesting that most of the variability may be explained by the injection of high-energy electrons. The one-zone SSC scenario used reproduces the behaviour seen between the measured X-ray and VHE gamma-ray fluxes, and predicts that the correlation becomes stronger with increasing energy of the X-rays.

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The blazar TXS 0506+056 associated with a high-energy neutrino: insights into extragalactic jets and cosmic ray acceleration
A neutrino with energy of ∼290 TeV, IceCube-170922A, was detected in coincidence with the BL Lac object TXS~0506+056 during enhanced gamma-ray activity, with chance coincidence being rejected at ∼3σ level. We monitored the object in the very-high-energy (VHE) band with the MAGIC telescopes for ∼41 hours from 1.3 to 40.4 days after the neutrino detection. Day-timescale variability is clearly resolved. We interpret the quasi-simultaneous neutrino and broadband electromagnetic observations with a novel one-zone lepto-hadronic model, based on interactions of electrons and protons co-accelerated in the jet with external photons originating from a slow-moving plasma sheath surrounding the faster jet spine. We can reproduce the multiwavelength spectra of TXS 0506+056 with neutrino rate and energy compatible with IceCube-170922A, and with plausible values for the jet power of ∼1045−4×1046erg s−1. The steep spectrum observed by MAGIC is concordant with internal γγ absorption above a few tens of GeV entailed by photohadronic production of a ∼290 TeV neutrino, corroborating a genuine connection between the multi-messenger signals. In contrast to previous predictions of predominantly hadronic emission from neutrino sources, the gamma-rays can be mostly ascribed to inverse Compton up-scattering of external photons by accelerated electrons. The X-ray and VHE bands provide crucial constraints on the emission from both accelerated electrons and protons. We infer that the maximum energy of protons in the jet co-moving frame can be in the range ∼1014 to 1018 eV.

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The broad-band properties of the intermediate synchrotron peaked BL Lac S2 0109+22 from radio to VHE gamma rays
The MAGIC telescopes observed S2 0109+22 in 2015 July during its flaring activity in high energy gamma rays observed by Fermi-LAT. We analyse the MAGIC data to characterise the very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission of S2 0109+22, which belongs to the subclass of intermediate synchrotron peak (ISP) BL Lac objects. We study the multi-frequency emission in order to investigate the source classification. Finally, we compare the source long-term behaviour to other VHE gamma-ray emitting (TeV) blazars. We performed a temporal and spectral analysis of the data centred around the MAGIC interval of observation (MJD 57225-57231). Long-term radio and optical data have also been investigated using the discrete correlation function. The redshift of the source is estimated through optical host-galaxy imaging and also using the amount of VHE gamma-ray absorption. The quasi-simultaneous multi-frequency spectral energy distribution (SED) is modelled with the conventional one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. MAGIC observations resulted in the detection of the source at a significance level of 5.3 σ. The VHE gamma-ray emission of S2 0109+22 is variable on a daily time scale. VHE gamma-ray luminosity of the source is lower than the average of TeV BL Lacs. The optical polarization, and long-term optical/radio behaviour of the source are different from the general population of TeV blazars. All these findings agree with the classification of the source as an ISP BL Lac object. We estimate the source redshift as z = 0.36 ± 0.07. The SSC parameters describing the SED are rather typical for blazars.

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